Education Abroad Advisor Manual for African American Students (Accordion)
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This guide is designed to provide concrete advice for the study abroad process for professionals who work with African-American college and university students from the U.S.. The guide has been divided into six sections. In order to contextualize the topic and expose what is already known, we begin with a review of the research and a history of African-American study abroad students. The remaining sections provide detailed practical advice for supporting the student during the research, application, preparation, time abroad, and re-entry phases of the study abroad process.

We use a stage-based approach in order to broaden the base of support for African-American students beyond the recruitment phase, providing background information, advice, and resources in this guide. We hope this will help international educators and others to effectively support African-American students from their initial interest in study abroad through their successful return.

Each section of this guide begins with defined objectives for knowledge and skill acquisition from that section. At the end of each section, you will find questions for reflection and tips or next steps to assist the reader in considering how to take action.

Education Abroad Advisor Guide for African American Students

  • A2 Background on African Americans in Education Abroad


    This guide is presented in the context of the history of African-Americans in U.S. education and higher education, because that history continues to inform the opportunities presented to these students and to shape their experiences. This section is grounded in the existing literature, both anecdotal and empirical, on African-American students and study abroad. Much of the existing literature focuses generally on underrepresented students. When possible, we highlight specific findings or advice related to African-American students. We find it essential to note that the African-American student population is incredibly diverse. One theme that runs throughout this guide is the importance of knowing your audience. For example, African-American students from a community that has been living in the same part of the U.S. for generations will have different experiences, expectations, and needs than a community of recent (or even not-so-recent) naturalized citizens with African heritage. The existing literature has not thoroughly examined these nuances. These differences in life history impact the social, cultural, linguistic, and financial capital that students bring to the study abroad process. Understanding the local environment is essential to effectively supporting students.

    Section Objectives

    • Recognize the richness and gaps in knowledge about African-American students and study abroad.

    • Develop a list of resources for learning more about how writers have described and discussed this student population.

    • Identify issues that are in need of further research or assumptions that may need to be challenged due to the lack of evidence. Prepare arguments for increasing outreach and support for African-American students throughout the study abroad process.


    History of African-Americans in Education Abroad

    As Hoffa describes in the first volume of his History of U.S. Study Abroad (2007), counting study abroad students presents many challenges. His main theme is that counting has lacked disaggregation. Hoffa writes about the lack of differentiation between length of program, academic activity (research versus study), and other factors. This lack of complexity extends to demographic categories. These factors severely limit the available data on this topic. Jackson’s (2006) work contextualizes study abroad within the larger literature about African-Americans abroad. This approach reminds readers that there is a rich history of African-American travelers who have left a strong cultural legacy. This history, and the literary works produced by some of these individuals, is a helpful reminder that despite persistent underrepresentation of African-Americans who study abroad, those who chose to participate are joining a longer tradition. Researching and sharing these stories provides powerful resources for professionals and students.

    The most complete source of information on participation in study abroad is available through the Institute of International Education’s annual report Open Doors (Bhandari & Chow, 2007, 2008, 2009; Chow & Bhandari, 2010, 2011). Universities throughout the U.S. voluntarily submit data for these reports to provide a picture of current study abroad activity. Over time, the reports have added more demographic data. A longitudinal view of the demographic data on race and ethnicity shows a slow increase in participation by students of color.

    Table 1: Compiled race and ethnicity data from Open Doors (Bhandari & Chow, 2007, 2008, 2009; Chow & Bhandari, 2010, 2011)

    Figure 1: Comparison chart of study abroad students of color (Chow & Bhandari, 2010) and students of color in U.S. higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010).

    It is important to consider the data in the table above in the context of participation by students of color in higher education overall, by combining the total percentages of students of color with higher education enrollment information from the National Center for Education Statistics (2010).

    The chart above demonstrates the persistent underrepresentation of students of color on study abroad. It also shows that while the percentage of students of color in higher education is rising consistently, the percentages in study abroad are rising more slowly and less consistently. These trends support an emphasis in the literature on increasing outreach to students of color as will be discussed in the review of the literature presented below.

    A review of the two data sources above by race and ethnicity reveals that students from certain racial and ethnic backgrounds are much less likely to study abroad. In 2006-07, Asian and Pacific Islanders made up 6.6% of students in higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009) and 6.7% of those on study abroad (Bhandari & Chow, 2008). They are the only minority group who are better represented on study abroad than in the U.S. student population as a whole. Hispanic Americans studied abroad in 2006-07 at a rate of 6% (Bhandari & Chow, 2008) at a time when they made up 11.1% of students enrolled in higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). The ratio was similar for Native American or Alaskan Natives who represented only .5% of study abroad students (Bhandari & Chow, 2008), half their 1% rate in U.S. higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). The disparity between African-American students in higher education and on study abroad was the largest, with only 3.8% participating in study abroad (Bhandari & Chow, 2008) and 12.8% in higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). Concern over this persistent disparity for African-American students has driven literature that has focused on increasing participation.

    Research on Interest

    The low levels of participation in study abroad by racial and ethnic minority students do not appear to be related to a lack of interest by these students. College-bound student interest in study abroad was recently reported as 55% for a sample of over 1,500 students who took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (American Council on Education, Art and Science Group, & the College Board, 2008). In the study, 27% of students indicated that they were absolutely certain they would study abroad, 28% were fairly certain that they would study abroad, and another 26% hoped to study abroad, but believed that it would not be possible (American Council on Education, et al., 2008, p. 3). Â Only 6% stated that they had absolutely no interest in study abroad, and 13% felt that they did not have enough information (American Council on Education, et al., 2008, p. 3).

    The level of interest reported above is dramatically higher than the 1.3% of U.S. students who actually study abroad (Bhandari & Chow, 2008; National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). The authors of the study abroad interest survey suggest that interest in study abroad was similar for students from all racial and ethnic backgrounds (American Council on Education, et al., 2008, p. 18). At the same time, this report did not present disaggregated data by racial and ethnic groups. Without this data, it is impossible to examine differences between the groups.

    This comparison of national higher education enrollment trends and study abroad participation rates highlights the need to increase outreach for African-American students and study abroad. The evidence about interest in study abroad suggests that there is considerable unmet need. These factors have led many practitioners and researchers to focus their efforts on why this disparity exists, and to provide advice on how to recruit more students of color to study abroad.

    • Perceived Barriers to Study Abroad

      A few studies have been conducted to determine why students of color do not study abroad. We consider these studies together with the research on barriers. They add context and support to the rich practitioner advice literature that exists in the field of international education. This literature has generated the “four F’s” of barriers to study abroad, as coined by Cole (Council on International Educational Exchange, 1991): Faculty and staff, Finances, Family and community, and Fears. Three key articles make up the barriers research (McClure, Szelenyi, Niehaus, Anderson, & Reed, 2010; Murray Brux & Fry, 2010; Van der Meid, 2003). The subtopics below bring together the major findings from this in a few key areas; (a) not for me, (b) financial impossibility, (c) family concerns, (d) fear of racism abroad, and (e) academic concerns. These studies do not provide enough disaggregated data from diverse African-American student populations to draw specific conclusions about the concerns or needs of those students in relationship to study abroad.

      Study Abroad is Not Relevant; Not for Me

      Common in these studies is the idea that students did not consider study abroad as something for them. In fact, the title of one; We Just Don’t Have the Possibility Yet: U.S. Latino/Narratives on Study Abroad (McClure, et al., 2010), emphasizes this concept. At the same time, this construct did not always match Jackson*s (2005) assertion that the dearth of media images led students of color to imagine study abroad as something mainly for White students. In fact, just three of the nine students in McClure et al.’s study envisioned the typical U.S. college student going abroad as White, (p. 378) and none of the students in her study believed that this made the opportunity inaccessible to them. They still had positive feelings about the possibility of time abroad at some point in their lives, but had simply ruled out the possibility of study abroad due to the barriers described here. In one of Murray Brux and Fry’s (2010) focus groups, the students discussed this concept and agreed that they had not felt constrained by that factor. This idea of relevance of study abroad to the students was not apparent in Van der Meid’s (2003) presentation of results.

      Each of these studies noted that students were aware of study abroad and even had a strong desire at one time. As one wrote, the "students [were] aware of study abroad programs at the university, and relatively large numbers had been encouraged by their instructors or advisors to participate" (Murray Brux & Fry, 2010). McClure et al. (2010) noted that all of the participants in their study "uniformly expressed a positive view of traveling abroad for school or work" (McClure,f et al., 2010). One possibility of why these students had not pursued study abroad is that, despite encouragement, the students do not possess the social and cultural capital to pursue the possibility. From a critical perspective, this might suggest that the institution does not recognize their community cultural wealth in ways that allow them to access the program they would like to pursue. This lack of follow-through may also be the logical extension of deficit thinking. One author writes of low expectations from teachers and advisors of students of color (Murray Brux & Fry, 2010). CRT scholars have suggested that this type of thinking has an impact on academic performance and involvement in non-traditional activities such as study abroad (Delgado Bernal, 2002).

      Financial Impossibility

      Financial concerns are central to all of the narratives presented in McClure et al (2010) study. Each of the exemplars emphasized the importance of finances as the most common reason presented for non-participation. These concerns were highlighted as concerns over lost income, obligations to support family, and fear of asking more of family when they were already struggling to pay for college. Murray Brux and Fry (2010) highlighted the fact that all the students in their study who indicated that they would like to participate had cited finances as the primary reason for nonparticipation. Van der Meid (2003) presentation of the financial concern was most striking, since his study included both study abroad students and students who had not studied abroad. Across most measures, his study abroad and non-study abroad were similar, but he noted that those who had not chosen to study abroad tended to indicate that finances were a major barrier, whereas those who were abroad did not cite this as one of the challenges that they had to overcome. In other words, finances may be more of a perceived barrier since those who chose to study abroad no longer mentioned it. There may be other factors, such as financial aid status and home university that play a role in these results. These details were not provided.

      These results suggest that there may be a change that occurs when students decide to study abroad. For the students who have decided not to study abroad (most of the respondents in this study), the barriers appear insurmountable. This could be similar for decision-making about going to college. This literature mentions one explanation for the large numbers of Asian-American students in community colleges: the financial cost and opportunity cost to the student and his/her family (Van der Meid, 2003). Still, some students with limited financial means chose to attend a four-year institution despite the burden on themselves and their families. Additional study on that phenomenon may help to explain what is happening for study abroad students. Van der Meid (2003) comparison to the students who were abroad suggests that something shifted when the students decided to pursue study abroad. Further examination of this phenomenon could help to better understand why some students acted on their latent interest in study abroad and others did not.

      Family Concerns and Closeness

      Family responsibilities or lack of support are common themes in all three of these articles. Van der Meid (2003) attempted to break down this barrier by examining the relationship of family immigration history to concerns about family, but had inconclusive results. Despite its presence in the anecdotal advice literature, family was not raised as a concern in his study. McClure et al (2010) narrative inquiry placed family as the most important concern for the Latino students in the study. They interpreted this finding as related to a closeness and emotional attachment in families that is integral to Latino culture. Given the limited consensus across these three studies, it is difficult to draw conclusions in this area.

      Fear of Racism Abroad and Safety Concerns

      Although all of the studies noted fear of racism abroad in their literature reviews, none of them found that this was a top concern in their studies. For some, this was wrapped up in a more general category called safety concerns (McClure, et al., 2010; Murray Brux & Fry, 2010). For the final study, this concern ranked at the bottom of the list.

      At the same time, all three of these studies suggested that their participants were interested in study abroad related to heritage destinations. The authors of all three articles suggested that this gap was a major factor in nonparticipation. This interest in heritage, language, and/or culture appeared to be connected to a perception that those locations would be more comfortable or accessible (McClure, et al., 2010). It may also be connected to the fact that none of these students had been made to believe that study abroad was a real possibility.

      Academic Concerns: Time to Graduation, Relevance, and More

      Graduating on time was a key concern for many in this body of research. For the students in McClure et al. (2010), concerns about extending time to graduation were major factors. Murray Brux and Fry (2010) mentioned this concern as one of academic scheduling and cited it in their survey as the number one issue. This was also the case for the non-study abroad students in Van der Meid (2003) study of Asian-American students. He found that academic compatibility of programs abroad was the number one barrier for students who did not go abroad, whereas those studying abroad ranked it sixth. This finding presents another area in which those who did not study abroad are blocked by something that the study abroad population overcame. This should not be read to suggest that students should not remain concerned about academics (since the students abroad are all presumably making progress towards their degrees). Instead, these findings suggest that the students who had decided not to study abroad had not been effectively made aware of the academic ramifications of participation.

      Untested Barriers

      Other than Van der Meid (2003), none of the barriers above has been examined in relationship to students who participated in study abroad. His sampling technique of posting a survey to a website presents some uncertainty. Furthermore, he presented limited statistical evidence for his findings. Still, his study presents a rich environment for future research, with its suggestion that the factors that motivated students to study abroad may have been different from the barriers that kept some from following through. This leaves a gap in knowledge about how students of color who do study abroad had perceived the barriers before they chose to apply. Nor does this literature identify strategies that study abroad participants used to overcome the barriers that they perceived. Van der Meid (2003) proposes that further research on the effect of study abroad on Asian-American students is critical to gaining an understanding of the students’ decisions to study abroad.

      Recommendations tend to follow a deficit model, whereby offices must manage the elements that students are missing, or help students overcome fears or ties to family in order to help them get past the barriers. Many of the recommendations in this literature connect closely to the anecdotal advice literature in the following section. None of the existing barriers research has substantively challenged the assumptions made in the advice literature.

      This limited literature has many gaps that present opportunities for future research. To date, only one of these studies have compared students who studied abroad with students who did not (Van der Meid, 2003) ” albeit with an acknowledgement that sampling techniques and sample size were problematic. Additional research on the challenges and barriers that students who participated in study abroad perceived would help identify which of the individual and institutional factors were real and which were perceived. By focusing on students who had decided not to study abroad, this literature is subject to threats that any perception-based study presents. None of these studies discussed this problem or designed systems to increase reliability and validity in their self-report surveys or focus groups. Finally, many of the recommendations and implications in this literature do not flow from the data presented. Instead, they are almost identical to the anecdotal advice literature in the next section. McClure et al (2010) study flows the most directly due to the rich descriptive data presented through a narrative inquiry approach.

    • Advice for Practitioners Working with African-American Students

      The study abroad community has expressed concern over the persistent underrepresentation of students of color. The persistent underrepresentation mentioned above has led to literature that focuses on strategies for increasing participation by students of color (Blumenthal & Gutierrez, 2009; Comp, 2008a; Council on International Educational Exchange, 1991; IES Abroad, 2009). This literature is generally made up of case studies that contextualize practitioner advice related to advising, outreach, or program design (Flores, 2008; Le, 2008; Lewis, 2008; Martinez, Ranjeet, & Marx, 2009; Murray Brux & Fry, 2010; Picard, Bernardino, & Ehigator, 2009). A few of these pieces have begun to examine issues related to first-generation college students and students with low socio-economic status. Both of these are areas some African-American students also fall into (Martinez, et al., 2009). Because parental education level is not tracked in the national data on study abroad, analysis has been limited.

      Organizations related to international educational exchange have begun to look more strategically at initiatives to diversify study abroad participation and destinations. In 2007, the Institute of International Education (IIE) launched a series of research-based white papers (Blumenthal & Gutierrez, 2009; Blumenthal & Laughlin, 2009; Gutierrez, Bhandari, & Obst, 2007; Gutierrez, Hawthorne, Kirk, & Powers, 2009; Obst, Bhandari, & Witherell, 2007; Raby, 2008). These papers have highlighted IIE initiatives on behalf of government agencies that have successfully diversified study abroad students, fields of study, institutions, and destinations. Because of this fiscal connection, these reports must be evaluated with a careful eye to potential bias. Still, they provide perspective on the challenges of maintaining current growth rates in study abroad, and on helping study abroad reach a broader student population.

      The sub-topics below provide additional details on the main themes in this anecdotal advice literature. These items provide a structure for the many individual pieces of advice, and present a base for comparing the findings.

      Reduce Institutional Barriers

      Many of the topics in this literature fall under this category. Most of the authors recommend diversification of office staff in order to create a more welcoming environment for students from diverse backgrounds (Hoffa, Pearson, Martin, & NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 2005; Jackson, 2005). Additionally, most of these publications recommends diversifying student assistants and outreach volunteers (Picard, et al., 2009). Some authors have also added a focus on the importance of educating study abroad staff on the life histories of students of color (Flores, 2008; Le, 2008; Lewis, 2008). Others have highlighted the importance of maintaining resources such as details on racism abroad, information for heritage seekers, and even practical tips on topics such as hair care and other day-to-day concerns” issues that may be magnified when a student is an outsider in a homogeneous host culture (Jackson, 2005).

      Reach Out to African-American Students

      Many of these articles recommend reaching out to students of color by collaborating with other campus offices. Federal TRIO-SSS programs are often mentioned as a good source, as are financial aid offices, multicultural offices, and others who serve a diverse community (Flores, 2008; Hoffa, et al., 2005; McClure, et al., 2010; Picard, et al., 2009). Some authors recommend, when reaching out to this student population in initial presentations, addressing race in relationship to study abroad (Jackson, 2005; Lewis, 2008).

      Heritage Seeking Programs of Short Duration

      Much of the advice literature claims that the lack of heritage study abroad options is the main reason that students of color do not study abroad (Comp, 2008a; LeMay Burr, 2005; Martinez, et al., 2009; Obst, et al., 2007; Picard, et al., 2009; Raby, 2008). Heritage seeking in study abroad was described as the act of seeking out a study abroad venue based on perceived shared ethnic, religious, cultural, and/or linguistic familiarity at the host location (Comp, 2008b). This claim that heritage seeking is a primary study abroad goal has not been examined empirically. National data on study abroad contains only institutional summaries, making it impossible to disaggregate program location by race and ethnicity (Chow & Bhandari, 2010).

      Recommendations around heritage study abroad often propose that students of color have job responsibilities, financial constraints, and family structures that prevent them from studying abroad for more than a few weeks. This has led to calls for shorter study abroad programs to serve these students (Comp, 2008a; LeMay Burr, 2005; Martinez, et al., 2009; Obst, et al., 2007; Picard, et al., 2009; Raby, 2008). This topic will be explored further in subsequent sections.

      Address Race and Build Capital

      Although none of this literature mentions social and cultural capital, a subset of the recommendations appear to be efforts to increase or recognize the social networks and cultural capital that students of color possess, in order to help them access study abroad. For example, some mention adapting admissions processes to better value different life experiences, while others suggest that selection processes with high-stakes interviews, or homogeneous selection panels, could disadvantage certain students. These ideas often connect with recommendations to diversify student clubs, peer mentor programs, and student assistants, or to connect applicants to international students earlier in the process (Jackson, 2005). These examples interplay between tactics designed to increase social networks, and strategies for changing institutional practice to better recognize a diversity of experiences. This interplay places the literature at the intersection between traditional constructs of social and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1985; Coleman, 1988) and CRT frameworks like community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005).

    • Research on African-American Study Abroad Students

      Research on study abroad experiences and outcomes has not generated a substantial body of research on the experiences of study abroad students of color. Almost none of the empirical research in peer-reviewed publications has been disaggregated by race and ethnicity, leaving their experiences out of the literature. To date, only four empirical articles that focus on the experiences of study abroad students of color have been published in peer-reviewed journals (Day-Vines, Barker, & Exum, 1998; Landau & Moore, 2001; Morgan, Mwegelo, & Turner, 2002; Talburt & Stewart, 1999). Together these articles represent research on 26 African-American study abroad students. No other study abroad students of color have been included in peer-reviewed empirical studies. Two of the studies relate to programs in Ghana (Day-Vines, et al., 1998; Landau & Moore, 2001) and one in Spain (Talburt & Stewart, 1999). One includes the narratives of an African-American professor who traveled abroad, an international student from Africa, and an African-American undergraduate woman who was considering study abroad (Morgan, et al., 2002).

      There appears to be growing interest in this area. Since 2006, six dissertations have directly or indirectly addressed the role of race and ethnicity in study abroad (Andriano, 2010; Guerrero, 2006; Jackson, 2006; Souders, 2009; Stallman, 2009; J. Young, 2009). This new research helps to overcome some of the gaps left by the limited published peer-reviewed empirical sources.

      These dissertations provide some additional perspectives, but leave many questions unanswered about the role of study abroad for students of color. Andriano*s (2010) study on first generation student engagement in relation to study abroad does not disaggregate data by race and ethnicity. This makes it impossible to know what role race and ethnicity had played in the study abroad involvement rates of study participants. One of the studies examines the impact of study abroad on White students’ racial awareness (Stallman, 2009). It is thus related, but not directly applicable to this investigation. In her examination of national identity negotiation through study abroad, Souders (2009) included one African-American student in a 10-student qualitative research project, and made some connections to the limited existing research on this population. Three of these dissertations focused primarily on students of color, or included significant numbers of these students in their sample. Those three were Jackson*s (2006) research on the study abroad experiences of nine African-American women, Guerrero’s (2006) study on 15 Latino study abroad students, and Young’s (2009) research on negotiating global identity in which 31 of the 40 respondents were people of color representing a range of racial and ethnic groups. The topics below emerged from this limited body of peer-reviewed and doctoral empirical research.

      Heritage Sought but Not Found

      Many of the heritage-seeking students in this research found that their expectations were not met. Limited empirical research on heritage study abroad makes it difficult to assess the claim that these programs increase participation by ethnic minority students (Morgan, et al., 2002). One study on students in Ghana looks at another aspect of this issue (Landau & Moore, 2001). For Landau and Moore, the fundamental question relates to the impact that studying in post-colonial or third-world countries has on study abroad outcomes, and the impact that the study abroad students have on the local community. Comp (2008b) provides a different perspective on heritage study abroad. His research proposes that minority students may find heritage connections with minority communities in their host country. This finding appeared to be in alignment with Jackson (2006) finding that study abroad caused shifts in self-awareness for students of color, rather than the study abroad location and its connection to personal heritage.

      Researchers on heritage study abroad identify a few key recommendations for practice. When considered with the anecdotal advice literature, most suggest that there is a need for more heritage study abroad options (IES Abroad, 2009; Martinez, et al., 2009; Murray Brux & Fry, 2010; Picard, et al., 2009). The research on heritage study abroad also indicated that heritage study abroad presented new challenges for students, due to their expectations of fitting into the local culture (Bond, 1988; Landau & Moore, 2001; Morgan, et al., 2002).

      Some emergent research suggests that U.S. study abroad in developing nations can run counter to the social goals of the programs. The limited literature in this area presents provocative arguments about the nature and benefits of study abroad. Looking at the use of images in study abroad promotional materials led Caton and Santos (2009) to conclude that study abroad marketing materials (for the program they studied) tended to reinforce Western hegemony and to re-assert Western superiority. According to some researchers, short-term study abroad commonly resulted in a strict separation between study abroad students and the host culture (Janes, 2008). Other researchers found that short-term study programs had a negative impact on host communities and proposed strategies for mitigation (Schroeder, Wood, Galiardi, & Koehn, 2009). In their evaluation of resources for study abroad assessment, Comp, Gladding, Rhodes, Stephenson, and Vande Berg (2007) proposed research on the impact of study abroad on host communities. Within this context, Biles and Lindley (2009) and Reilly and Senders (2009) proposed that the field is in need of a progressive re-positioning in order to overcome current dogma and ensure that the idealistic goals of study abroad are met for both students and host communities.

      Rethinking Identity Through Education Abroad

      Even with this limited pool of research, there appears to be growing agreement that study abroad can be a powerful site of identity negotiation. Researchers have begun to identify changes in identity as common study abroad outcomes (Angulo, 2008; Day-Vines, et al., 1998; Dolby, 2004, 2005, 2007; Jackson, 2006; Souders, 2009; Stallman, 2009; Talburt & Stewart, 1999; Wick, Jackson, & Flores, 2009, October; J. Young, 2009). The emergent nature of this area of inquiry is demonstrated by the fact that half of these sources on this topic are unpublished doctoral dissertations.

      The literature has begun to show that students reexamine their national identity because of their study abroad experiences. Dolby (2004, 2005, 2007) extensive work frames this area of inquiry. She has focused on examining national identity for study abroad students from the U.S. and Australia. Dolby argues that encountering and negotiating American identity abroad is the most significant component of the study abroad experience (Dolby, 2004). For her, these findings connect to discussions about the democratizing effect of education. She believes that the active view of American identity that students developed made them more connected, critical, and concerned about their home country. Of the 26 participants in her 2004 study, three were students of color and their perspectives were not distinguished in her presentation of her data.

      One of her sections emphasized the surprise and discomfort her participants felt at being perceived as an outsider. CRT would suggest that students of color would be more familiar with this outsider feeling. Dolby characterizes American identity as property that study abroad students carry. As students come to recognize this property, they begin to examine its contents and develop new ways to live with it and benefit from it.

    • Discussion and Conclusion

      This brief review of the literature on African-American study abroad students was meant to provide a background that will orient the reader to the advice sections that follow. As previously noted, despite many efforts over the last 20 years, underrepresentation of African-American students on study abroad is a persistent problem. Focus on this problem seems to have captured most of the discussions related to African-American students and study abroad, so there is very little writing on the study abroad experiences of African-American students. This gap has resulted in very little evidence or advice about working with African-American students who elect to participate in study abroad. Throughout this manual, and for each stage in the study abroad process, four overriding themes will serve as the platform of the skills and knowledge shared.

      Know Your Audience

      Know your audience and speak their language. The research above on the complex relationship between identity and the study abroad process underscores the deeply personal impacts that these programs have on students. As we noted at the start of this section, given the diverse range of backgrounds in the African-American community alone, it is essential to learn as must as possible about the individuals who are entering the study abroad process. This is even more important when the students come from a background that is unfamiliar to you.

      Share Stories

      Amplify the voices of African-American study abroad students. Given the paucity of research on African-American students who elect to study abroad and the small numbers who are currently participating, there may be very few students in any given environment. We recommend developing systems and structures that facilitate collecting the experiences of students who have participated in the process, and disseminating it broadly, so that all African-American study abroad students can learn from those who have participated in the past. The World is in Your Hands is an excellent example of this type of structure that all offices can use to amplify and disseminate student experiences and suggestions (Larson, 2003a). Features from magazines such as Cafe Abroad, Abroad View, Glimpse, and Transitions Abroad can provide additional voices. Profiles on study abroad students from Mobility International, the Gilman Scholarship program, or the United Negro College Fund provide additional online sources of stories, as do student blogs. All of these quotes, profiles, and stories provide support for African-American students as they navigate and reflect on the study abroad process.

      Networks of Support

      Develop and maintain networks or communities of support to facilitate attraction, retention, and outcomes for African-American study abroad students. One main theme in this guide is the need to help students develop support systems that will facilitate their experiences throughout the study abroad process. This support system can take many forms, and may need to morph and adjust as students participate in study abroad. One key concept to remember here is that networks can be made available, but students will need to work to maintain and use their networks.

      The limited literature on African-American students who have studied abroad highlights the importance of facilitating the development of support networks that follow students throughout the study abroad process. Throughout this guide, we have included recommendations on how to connect applicants with returnees and how to connect participants with one another during the study abroad process (even if they are not in the same program). This will help create a community that does speak the same language and share similar life experiences, including the life experience of being an African-American study abroad student, which is still far too uncommon.

      Integrate Education Abroad into Campus Culture

      Build systems and structures that ensure that study abroad programs are deeply integrated into the academic mission of the institution, and ensure that all students are aware of the key facts about study abroad. This may seem like a general comment that does not relate solely to the concerns of African-American study abroad students. However, as noted throughout this guide, efforts to facilitate the experiences of African-American study abroad students can only succeed if programs are deeply aligned with academic goals and if they work effectively with financial aid and other campus structures. In addition, we recommend working persistently to ensure that everyone in the community recognizes the value of study abroad in higher education. Building this type of culture is the single most important factor to overcoming the perceived barriers to study abroad and starting the conversation with more African-American students.

      Questions for Reflection and Action

      The following questions are ways to consider the impact and opportunities that the information in this chapter represents. Take a moment to consider these questions and make a few notes before moving into the next section.

      • How has this introduction to the literature supported or challenged your assumptions about‚ African-American study abroad students?

      • What would you like to know more about? Which of the resources mentioned above could help you answer your questions?

      • How can you use the information above to strengthen efforts to increase participation and better support African-American study abroad students?

      • What additional research would you like to see? How could you participate in or otherwise support this research?


  • A3 Outreach to African American Students and Their Parents


    Advising African-American study abroad students encompasses a range of stages. It begins with informing students of the opportunity to study abroad, followed by advising them of their programmatic and financial options, answering questions, and assisting them with the completion of the application process. It continues with preparing and supporting them for the experience before departure, while abroad, and after their return. This process also includes informing and preparing the parents of these African-American study abroad students. We begin by examining various aspects of outreach as an elemental step of advising both African-American students and their parents, since it is important that they both are prepared for the experience.

    This section will address the question of how to connect with African-American students and their parents via human contact and other resources, in order to encourage students to explore the possibility of studying abroad and to encourage parent support of such participation. This section considers potential barriers, partnering, marketing, and approach from the perspective of attracting students and parental support.

    Section Objectives

    The goal of this section is to gain an understanding of the range of resources and methods to use in successfully reaching out to potential African-American study abroad students and their parents.

    • To be familiar with the perceived barriers to why African-Americans do not study abroad in proportionate numbers to European-Americans,

    • To utilize partners, both on and off campus, to connect with greater numbers of African-American students and their parents,

    • To discuss how activities and targeted marketing may promote increased participation in study abroad by African-American students, and

    • To learn the importance of "speaking the language" of both African-American students and their parents toward gaining confidence.


    • Outreach to Students: Understanding Real and Perceived Barriers

      Know and understand the perceived barriers about why African-Americans do not study abroad in proportionate numbers.

      In the development of any strategy to address the issue, it is important to begin with an understanding of the widely held perceived barriers to the involvement of African-American students in study abroad. As discussed in the previous chapter, via the ""barriers research"" and the ""four Fs”of barriers to study abroad, the major widely held perceived barriers are:

      1. Faculty and Staff: lack of encouragement;

      2. Finances: African-American students are more likely to come from families with lower incomes;

      3. Family and Community: safety issues and concerns about bias, discrimination and or racism in an unknown place;

      4. Fear: worries about encountering new forms of racism and being the only African-American on the program;

      5. Awareness: not knowing about the availability and benefits of study abroad and/or financial aid for study abroad; and

      6. Academic Concerns: delay of graduation and relevancy of experience to academics.

      There is value in sharing these barriers (perceived or real) to remind us as advisors to keep them in mind during our outreach. However, as we work to address these potential concerns, be aware that:

      1. As with any student group, there is no template from which all African-American students are derived; therefore, while some (or all) of these barriers may apply to certain students at your institutions, others may not. Additionally, many of these barriers may also exist for other students regardless of their ethnicity.

      2. It is important to recognize that due to the history of the United States, African-American students may be experiencing these issues more often than their peers.

      3. Historically, there have been issues with non-minority educational professionals supporting African-American students. People who traditionally mentor African-Americans can lack study abroad experience; thereby not recognizing the value in it.

      4. Nationally, African-American families earn less money than any other ethnic group in the U.S.

      5. Racism and discrimination still exists in the U.S. and abroad and is therefore, a very real concern to students and their families especially with students travelling far from their usual support system. Furthermore, there is the likely possibility that an African-American student may be the only person of his/her race on a study abroad trip.

      6. Lastly, African-American families do not have a history of sending young people abroad to study, so it is less likely that study abroad would be discussed in the family setting. If the topic arises, the student may not get the familiar support needed to make study abroad a reality.

      Partners, Allies, Collaborators

      It is essential to understand that you will need to intensify your efforts with a targeted approach to make study abroad programs and opportunities better known to your African-American students. As you design your plan of action, an important first step is to seek out partners, allies and collaborators. These individuals cannot only help you meet your goals, but they can also provide direct access to students, plus information and resources you might otherwise not be acquainted with. Whether you are a study abroad office, an individual on a high school or college campus, an independent study abroad provider, or a funding organization, your environment offers a variety of options for partnerships.

      Faculty offers a good starting place to locate potential allies.

      The faculty member could be someone functioning as a current or past study abroad Program Leader, or simply a professor who teaches a high number of African-American students. A faculty member might be interested in including a trip to Africa in his African Studies class (which may have a high number of African-American students).

      Often, faculty are current or former Fulbrighters, have travelled and/or worked internationally as a professor or researcher, or are currently involved in international projects or partnerships. These experiences make them willing and appropriate allies. Consider working with Department Chairs who may have an interest in getting more of their students involved in experiences abroad. Academic Advisors are also excellent collaborators, as they meet with students often throughout their academic career, and can help students schedule an abroad experience into their overall academic plan.

      A staff (and/or faculty) advisor of the Black Student Club may be able to get strong involvement from club members due to high student contact.

      Special Program Administrators may be very interested in partnering with you to increase the number of African-American students involved in study abroad. They could be faculty or staff who lead programs such as the Honors Program, the Freshman Experience Program, or Academic Support or Enhancement Programs. Many of these have funds that could be utilized for a special short or long-term specialized program that includes all or a targeted portion of the students they serve.

      Working with the Dean of a School or College is an excellent way to promote study abroad as a requirement in students’ academic plan, and toward reaching the largest number of students in a specific major. The partnership could include department scholarships, major-related study abroad programs, and active involvement and support from the students, staff, and faculty of the targeted major.

      Staff can also function as willing allies in the effort to recruit African-American students to study abroad.

      Solicit the assistance of African-American staff members of your study abroad office, International Student Services Center, or other international-oriented programs who have traveled to other countries.

      Talk to African-American staff members in other offices to see if they, or someone they know, may be intimately knowledgeable about a certain country and would be willing to share their experience with students to encourage interest (either in a group or individually).

      With both faculty and staff, you may find that a native from another country is very willing to work with your office to design a program to their home country and would actively work to secure students.

      Speaking with African-American faculty or staff will help you to better understand the needs and concerns of African-American students at your institution.

      Getting involvement by other administrative offices is vital to ensuring that students are aware that study abroad exists and is a viable option for them. The admissions office and counselors, and the financial aid office and counselors, must promote the accessibility of study abroad to all students. They should be kept informed of the latest study abroad offerings and be aware of the rules surrounding the use of financial aid for study abroad, and be encouraged to give this information to students with whom they meet and speak. Working with the lead administrator responsible for the financial aid office could lead to the establishment of special institutional scholarships for under-represented students in your programs. It is also important that both the admissions office and financial aid office are aware of, and promote, internal and external funding available for study abroad. Many students are either unaware it exists or will have questions that should be addressed in an informed manner to promote access.

      For offices or organizations looking to increase the number of African-American students studying abroad, one of the most useful collaborations is to work with study abroad alumni. While not many would argue with the fact that the best scenario would be to have a returning on-campus African-American student to participate in recruiting other current African-American students, this isn’t always possible. However, there are still many ways to involve study abroad alumni:

      Even if a student has graduated, that student may be willing to return to speak with other students; it is therefore important to get updated contact information for all students, especially African-Americans as often they are in small numbers. Ask them if they would be willing to speak to other interested students about study abroad in general or about their specific program.

      A Facebook page is another way of allowing students to ask and answer questions of any type about your programs. Encouraging participation by all past study abroad students and getting commitments from targeted students, return students who work in your office, and African-American students from other institutions and programs, will ensure a good level of conversation. Partnering with other schools to encourage their African-American students or students of color (to include those who define themselves broadly) to ""like"" the page could lead to a resource for a broad range of students.

      If some of your students participate in programming via a study abroad provider, direct enrollment, or special programming such as the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Programs ask them if they know other students of color who might be willing to speak with other students (either electronically or in person). And, of course, invite them to join your Facebook page.

      Another important resource within your greater community is the many private and public organizations and companies with whom you can partner for funding, participation, and promotion. Partner with community, national, and international groups and organizations targeting African-Americans, such as: sororities, fraternities, Society of Black Engineers, African-American CP, and Urban League to gain access to young adults and high school-aged students. Many of these and other African-American oriented organizations are international in scope. Many of these organizations have programs from youth of all ages and could provide a venue within the community to talk about the benefits of study abroad. Many of these same students could eventually end up as (or may currently be) students at your institution, or utilize your organization to study abroad.

      Partner with established international education diversity-oriented associations with the same goals and an infrastructure already in place to develop special programs (such as the Diversity Abroad Network). This can assist you with the latest information on how to continue to advise, recruit and support African-American students. Affiliating with an organization that is singularly committed to increasing the number of diverse students studying abroad (by supporting the work of professionals in the international education field) provides ready access to information, resources, and skill-building opportunities. This saves time, expands your network, and provides proven best practices to try at your own organization or university.

      Unite with other internationally oriented groups such as Rotary International, Fulbright, and Gilman. This offers additional established funding opportunities and extended support systems for your African-American students. These organizations have a long history of encouraging and assisting students to study abroad, often to the less traveled locations.

      Partner with private study -abroad program providers who intend to diversify their programs by increasing the number of African-Americans participating in their programs. Uniting with them provides access to potential scholarships for minority students and additional choices of destinations that may be more appealing to your African-American students. Furthermore, if your institution has a low African-American student population, partnering with an outside program provider may offer the opportunity for the student to participate in a program in which there are other African-American student attendees.

      Another approach, especially if your institution has a very low percentage of African-American students, is to team up with other colleges to diversify your programs. Working with other educational institutions with a different ethnic composition provides opportunity to expand your study abroad offerings by establishing reciprocal credits, fill under-enrolled programs, and diversify program attendees. Local community colleges, where the growing numbers often include a large percentage of minority students, present a relatively untapped potential for reasonably priced study abroad programs. Keep in mind that some of these students may be planning to transfer to your institution after they complete their Associate’s degree. Therefore, they may see obtaining credits and interaction with current students as a benefit.

      Targeted Marketing

      Targeted outreach/marketing is essential to significantly increase African-American study participation in study abroad. To begin, your office should assess past targeted marketing efforts. Those campaigns that proved effective should be repeated and enhanced. The campaigns that were not successful should be evaluated to determine areas for improvement. If your office has not had engaged in targeted marketing/outreach in the past, work with other offices on campus, other institutions, and/or outside organizations to develop a strategy. The Diversity Network*s Good Practices Series contains case studies of initiatives employed by institutions and organizations to diversify study abroad.


      Attending conferences, meetings and online discussions with other international education professionals is an excellent way to learn ideas about how to reach targeted students. Utilize the viewpoints of others, by bringing together a group of interested individuals to brainstorm ideas on how to reach African-American students on your campus.

      Study Abroad Fairs, department meetings, freshman orientation, admission events, diversity fairs and International Education Week activities offer promotional opportunities.

      A Career Center panel discussion on the benefits of study abroad to one chosen career, and how to represent the experience in a resume and during an interview helps connect the experience to a student academic experience.

      Providing a list of return study abroad students who are available to answer questions about their study abroad experience is a way to offer one-on-one peer contact to students who respond better to smaller groups, or who are just beginning to consider the idea of study abroad. Display study abroad alumni pictures with accompanying major, ethnicity, class standing, program name and length and a short quote. You can put this display on a bulletin board outside the study abroad office (for 24-hour access) under a simple title that instructs students to ASK ME what you want to know about study abroad. Having African-American study abroad alumni follow up with African-Americans who express even slight interest in studying abroad is another way to promote student-to-student marketing.

      Any activity that combats the apprehension of both students and their parents or guardian by providing detailed information in a relaxing environment can go a long way toward recruiting African-American students. For example, plan a get-together at someone’s home for both potential students and their parents (an African-American alumni host, parents or African-American faculty advisor). This will enable parents and students to ask all the other questions in a safe environment, and address actual and perceived issues toward the faculty advisor, office staff and/or alumni students and parents determined by the ethnic makeup of each.


      The study abroad website of your institution or organization should have content, images, and other media that will welcome and appeal to African-Americans.

      A great way to answer questions that African-American students may have is a handout with FAQs by minority students.

      Pair this with a promotional brochure with photos of African-American students while in their host country of study. Steer clear of only promoting the heritage angle of study abroad by showing African-American students in a variety of destinations. Also remember to make your main promotional brochure/ website/ bulletin boards/ advertisements all products that champion ethnic diversity in their inclusiveness.

      Address clubs with high African-American membership.

      Target general courses and major classes with high African-American student representation.

      Participate in events sponsored by student organizations or the campus with a cultural theme. These are additional options to spread the word that study abroad can be a viable option for everyone. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. Day is the perfect opportunity to share information about African-Americans who travelled or worked internationally to promote the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world. Black History Month also provides an opportunity to highlight iconic African-Americans who lived, travelled and/or worked internationally, and teach how those experiences influenced their lives.

      Have an African-American return study abroad student write an article or participate in an interview by the local or campus newspaper, television or radio station speaking about his/her experience. This is another way to help students realize that African-Americans do study abroad, and to share the experience in a way that can be discussed with guardians. Even though most students are legally adults, their families still play an important role in determining whether or not they study abroad, whether through funding or encouragement.

      Targeted Messaging: Speak Their Language

      The understanding that distinct generations approach life differently is a perfect starting point for the discussion of communication. Not many would argue that communication methods have changed drastically in recent years. Now, the cell phone is commonplace, a new texting vocabulary has been born, a rotary telephone is considered an antique and the computer long ago replaced the typewriter. While the communication medium may have changed, what hasn’t changed is the message.

      Students continue to value the opinions and words of their peers; possess varying levels of apprehension of the unknown; and appreciate any information on funding their endeavors as a starving student. African-American students (and their families) may also have the added burden of the fear of facing racial discrimination abroad. Ultimately, the goal is two-fold: to convey the message to all students that study abroad is a conceivable educational offering, and to encourage them to consider the option by providing information and answers to the question they may have, using the methods they value.

      The primary mode to reach students is to utilize the International Education office website and the campus home page to generally advertise study abroad. However, if you want to capture a specific audience, you need to ensure that you have a well-crafted landing page. You want to captivate your audience, but keep it simple. If you want to attract African-Americans, make sure you have a link on the landing page that focuses on students of color. Then provide testimonials, race-related FAQs, African-American student contact info, and downloadable promotional material with faces that look like theirs. The page should be customized for them.

      Next, it is important to meet the students where they are. Consider utilizing a social network site such as Facebook. While it is not the only site, it is one of the largest with over 800 million registered users. It’s not just about having a page; it*s more about how you manage your page. Getting a commitment from your African-American study abroad alumni to monitor the site to address certain alumni-oriented questions will help you keep the conversation active. It is also a good idea to assign one of your regular student assistants to check the site daily and contact specific alumni to ask that they address questions on the site. A staff member should also monitor the site to ensure appropriate language and accurate information. Another technological option is to ask your current study abroad students if they plan to blog while on their study abroad experience. If so, ask if you can share their site with students interested in going on the same program, or just interested in following a student who is going through the experience.

      Consider designing a video addressing concerns/ fears/ benefits, etc., featuring comments by African-American students; non-African-American students; a representative from the financial aid office addressing funding options; the President of the University talking about the importance of study abroad; the program faculty advisors commenting on race relations in general and/or specific countries; the study abroad advisor detailing the support systems in place on-site; and the parent of an African-American study abroad alumni. The video can be placed on the website or shown during information sessions. The video offers an opportunity for non-African-American staff members to address many of the concerns of their African-American students through the actual words of others. You may be able to secure funding for the video and later share it with other study abroad offices.

      Hiring an African-American staff member could help in connecting to the African-American student community on your campus. With any proposal for a new hire, it is always important to remember to think outside the box. If your office cannot afford a full-time staff member, consider a part-time position. Additionally, you may be able to partner with another department and split a position between the two offices. Be creative in your approach. Don’t forget that there may be a graduating study abroad student who is interested in the field of international education and would be willing to join the staff at the entry level or even as a graduate intern. Finally, don’t forget that soliciting a volunteer is also a good option.

      Funding a study abroad experience is not an issue for all students. However, as higher education continues to increase in cost and a large percentage of students at most institutions receive financial aid of some sort, it is important to inform them of the existing options in utilizing any funding they are currently receiving at their institution. It important for both them and their parents to fully understand which aid can be used for study abroad, which cannot, and how its use affects the aid during the other terms of study before their departure or upon their return. Since African-Americans are less likely to know about study abroad prior to entering college, it is important to educate them early on about the need to plan financially by including study abroad in their overall academic plan.

      While the study abroad advisor should be generally aware of how the financial aid is distributed, developing a partnership with a designated individual in the financial aid office will provide an expert in the area who can concentrate on keeping abreast of the latest changes and provide both students and parents with a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of the process. It is important for both the financial aid representative and the study abroad advisor to stay informed regarding the latest scholarships or fellowships and the criteria for African-American students interested in studying, working or volunteering abroad. This information can be shared directly with students and posted on bulletin boards, the website, and social media sites, and can be shared with the larger campus community for marketing purposes via targeted offices and departments.

    • Outreach to Parents

      Know and understand the concerns many African-American parents have about their students studying abroad, and how to work to address those issues in your outreach.

      The concerns of African-American parents are not that different from those of many other parents of study abroad students, save their concern about racism abroad. What also must be considered, in the case of many African-Americans, is that there is not a communal and widespread understanding of the benefits of study abroad as an educational component of one*s academic plan or professional career.

      Abundant information is the best tool to address these issues: providing detailed information on all types of study abroad opportunities and the corresponding language requirements; the availability of financial assistance to defray expenses; and emergency and after-hours contact information for concerns and assistance before, during, and after the study abroad experience.

      Partners, Allies and Collaborators

      Joining forces with other academic and community members in an effort to inform African-American parents and other guardians is an excellent method toward ensuring consistent, thorough information. Often, students do not share enough information to make parents feel comfortable with the fact that their child wants to study hundreds of miles away from home. However, having ready access and familiarity to the individuals who will be accompanying, supporting, and assuring proper preparation for their child before, during, and after the program is incalculably reassuring.

      Activities, Targeted Marketing, Speak Their Language

      It is important to realize that student-parent relationships vary widely. When preparing a marketing approach for African-American students, one must recognize that many adults may be involved in influencing a decision to study abroad. The student may be living with (or consider as their guardian) their parents, grandparents, other relatives, or a trusted friend. Also, due to the low numbers of African-American students studying abroad, when a student does consider the possibility of studying and discusses it with parents or guardians, often those individuals will then discuss the topic with their family, friends and community members in an effort to gain more first-hand knowledge from someone who is more informed than they. It is essential to consider the varying educational levels, generations, and information levels of the individuals who may review your promotional material. Following the idea of keeping the information simple, clear and complete, answer the main questions most parents have regarding racial discrimination that concern many African-Americans. Utilize your resources to ensure that the information carries the correct tone and language. Even though many homes have a computer, not everyone owns or utilizes one; therefore, it is still important to offer printed brochures for either you or the student to share with the supervising adults in their life.

      As mentioned earlier in the student outreach section, providing a video sharing the experiences of African-American study abroad alumni, possibly featured at a get-together at someone’s home (alumni or host family, for instance) enables parents to ask all the other questions in a safe environment and address actual and perceived issues. Ensure parents that they are welcome to contact you with questions about the program. Offer the students the option of signing a release form that allows his/her parents access to information that might otherwise not be available to them.

      As with students, provide parents with testimonials, minority FAQs, a “What parents want to know” page, African-American student and parent contact information, promotional material and staff contact info. Encourage African-American study abroad alumni to write articles about their experience for their local paper, local and national Black publications, or websites such as Their speaking about the life-changing experience, financial realities, scholarship information and lessons learned will go a long way toward alleviating some of the fears of African-American students parents. It will also provide a resource that you can reference and share with future potential African-American study abroad parents.

      And finally, make sure you are open and prepared to answer the numerous questions that African-American parents may have. Remember, if you don’t know the answer, acknowledge that you don*t and offer to find out. Do not try to make up an answer this does not breed confidence. Work with offices on campus, other institutions, or outside organizations to get the answer you need. Get back to the inquirer in a timely manner and make a note of the answer for future parent conversations.

      Tips for Success

      1. Go to where the parents/students are located, don’t expect them to come to you.

      2. Ask for assistance from your African-American alumni in connecting to other African-American students; utilize them as a resource.

      3. Be prepared and patient in providing information or a contact person to answer all the many questions. African-American parents especially need a lot of information, and in great detail.

      4. If you don’t know the answer to a question, find out and get back to the student or parent in a timely manner, then make a note for the next time.

      5. An ethnically diverse staff is a plus; however, if you are a small office or one that lacks the diversity of your student body, utilize the resources of your alumni remotely. You can have a question-and-answer section on your website with the pictures of past African-American returnees, and have them answer a series of questions that students might have this can be part of a ""diversity"" section that applies to all “under-represented groups.”

      6. Offer students an array of choices in terms of country of study, term of study, and cost of program. Often, short-term programs are a more viable, cost-affordable option.

      7. Let students know about all their education abroad options. Internships, work, and volunteer options may be more attractive choices for some students. Consider non-traditional programming; students may seek to combine several options into one package; for example, a study abroad-work experience.

      Final Questions

      1. What are some of the perceived barriers to why African-Americans do not study abroad in greater numbers?

      2. Who can serve as allies, both on campus and in the community, and in what ways can you collaborate?

      3. What activities can enable you to learn additional ways to outreach to your African-American students?

      4. What are three new marketing ideas you plan on implementing to target potential African-American study abroad students?

      5. How can you ensure you are speaking the language of the African-American students and their families?

      6. What methods could you utilize to improve the comfort level of African-American parents whose students are interested in pursuing study abroad?

  • A3 Advising and Application Support for African American Students

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    • Pie wafer brownie

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  • Danish soufflé

    Lemon drops ice cream I love danish soufflé cake jelly cupcake. Bear claw I love I love tart I love liquorice bear claw. Halvah chocolate gummi bears jelly-o jelly-o lollipop lemon drops liquorice. Candy canes tiramisu candy faworki apple pie. Chocolate jujubes sesame snaps ice cream cupcake. Halvah topping chupa chups biscuit. I love I love chupa chups tootsie roll marshmallow tart gummi bears chocolate.

    • Biscuit bear claw bear claw

      Halvah I love jelly beans. Danish I love jelly beans sweet roll tart biscuit. Lemon drops wypas toffee candy canes lemon drops dragée. Sweet roll I love bonbon I love. Liquorice chocolate bar lollipop faworki lollipop sugar plum. Soufflé croissant lemon drops cotton candy. Jelly candy canes cupcake halvah macaroon.

    • Jujubes bear claw topping applecake

      Pastry ice cream pie marshmallow muffin gingerbread. Bonbon wafer sweet roll candy lollipop. Sugar plum jujubes sweet roll donut gummi bears chupa chups ice cream. Icing I love apple pie lemon drops faworki sugar plum sweet roll. Marshmallow liquorice cotton candy jujubes chocolate bar fruitcake topping carrot cake. Chocolate croissant cupcake macaroon pastry gummi bears jelly beans. Oat cake bear claw lollipop chocolate cake. Ice cream danish faworki dragée I love chupa chups cotton candy I love. Cookie gummi bears oat cake faworki powder. Wypas jelly bonbon tiramisu apple pie jelly beans.